When hot water from industrial equipment or HVAC systems drains and is sprayed or spilled into the area, some of the hot water evaporates and the rest accumulates in a basin, lowering the overall temperature of the water in the cooling tower. Materials such as PVC and plastic panels create a large area on which water can evaporate and fill the interior of the tower, which is called cooling tower filling. There are two basic filling classifications: splash water fillings break up the water and film-like fillings distribute the water in thin layers.
Cooling towers work on the principle of extracting heat from the water by evaporating a small part of the water, which is then fed back through the tower. The liquid that closes a cooling tower circuit is based on the evaporation of water to remove heat from a coil inside the tower itself. A secondary liquid located below the coil repels the heat, and the water falls out of the tower when evaporation occurs, similar to other cooling towers.
Cooling towers use cool water from a huge heat exchanger to expel the accumulated heat from the atmosphere and return cold water to the cooling system. Cooling towers operate a heat transfer process and cooling cycle so that the water can be reused. Hot water from the cooling system penetrates into the top of the tower and is sprayed over a large area so that the heat can be transferred to a surface called filling.
When the cooled water hits the air, a small part evaporates and lowers its temperature. The condenser water leaves the bottom of the tower at its lowest temperature. Cooled water is collected on the ground and pumped back into the plant or building for reuse.
When the warm condenser enters the cooling tower, it passes through a nozzle that delivers small drops that fill and enlarge the surface of water, allowing for better heat loss and greater evaporation. The cold water then returns to the air conditioner, which is currently being cooled, and the system is cooled again and the cycle repeats itself. Cooling towers use the same principles of evaporative cooling and continuous water flow cooling.
Cooling towers are crucial for power plants, factories, refineries, processing plants, hotels and other facilities that rely on water circulation to repel heat from buildings and machinery. Cooling towers are large boxes designed to maximize evaporation of water. They also contain materials such as PVC and plastic sheets, which create a large area for water evaporation.
Water is cooled in evaporative cooling by a sensible heat transfer that is the temperature difference between air and water. Heat is transferred through the exchange of heat between air and water, and thanks to evaporation, only a small amount of water needs to be cooled. In wet cooling towers (open cooling towers used in water cooling systems), the heat transfer is measured by decreasing the process temperature and increasing the moisture content (wet bulb temperature) of the air flowing through the cooling tower.
Water is heated by steam, coal, natural gas or nuclear radiation to generate electricity. Hot water is also caused by air conditioners, condensers and other industrial processes. Cooling towers specialize in heat exchangers, and instead of conducting heat and convection through the shell or tube of the heat exchanger, they generate cooling by bringing water and air into contact.
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